- To measure sunshine, weathermen use a Campbell Stokes sunshine recorder. This is a glass ball which concentrates sunshine on to a thick piece of card. The sunshine burns a mark on the card which shows the number of hours of sunshine in the day.
- Emperor penguins dive down to depths of 265m (870ft), staying under for up to nine minutes, occasionally even twice as long. Between dives, they comb their feathers to trap air in them, which helps to keep them warm in the cold water.
- The ancestors of sea mammals once lived on land. About 50 million years ago, they began to return to the sea for food and their bodies adapted to life in the water. The whale’s front legs became flippers, its back legs disappeared and its nostrils became a blow-hole on top of its head. Sea mammals can hold their breath for a long time. A fin-back whale is able to stay underwater for 40 minutes; a bottle-nosed dolphin for two hours.
- Metal pipes often burst when the water inside them turns to ice. This is because water expands when it freezes. It also becomes lighter. If ice did not float on water the seas would gradually turn to ice and no life would be able to survive on Earth.
- Until the age of three months a cheetah cub has a thick mane of smoky-grey hair on its back. The mane is about 8 cm (3 in) long and helps hide the cub among dry grasses and bushes. Manes also make an animal look bigger and fiercer than it really is to scare away enemies.
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